Healthy eatingIt is one of the most important issues in terms of protecting both health and body form.
Fulfilling the requirements for healthy and balanced nutrition in all age groups, starting with breast milk or formulas in infants, to adulthood and old age, is of great importance in terms of protection from diseases and having ideal body mass.
However, there are some basic information that everyone who wants to act correctly and consciously about healthy nutrition should know.
WHAT IS HEALTHY NUTRITION?
Nutrients are needed in the human body to perform daily functions. Consumed foods constitute the energy source required for physical activity and biological functions in the body.
There are three basic nutrients in the foods we eat. These are carbohydrates, proteins and fats. In addition to these three basic groups, which are called macro nutrients, vitamins and minerals, which are micronutrients, are other components taken into the body with nutrients.
It is of great importance to fully meet the requirements for vitamins and minerals for the smooth functioning of the digestive, respiratory, excretory, circulatory, nervous, skeletal and muscular systems, the healthy production of hormones and body secretions, and the continuation of motor skills and cognitive functions in a healthy way. has.
In addition, maintaining the order of many systems in the body, especially the digestive system, is only possible with the implementation of a healthy and balanced nutrition plan.
In the most basic sense, healthy nutrition is the type of nutrition that contains all macro and micro nutrients in the amounts that the person needs, at the same time fully meets the amount of energy needed by the individual, and is suitable for maintaining the ideal weight.
Since each individual’s body composition, age, gender and health status are different from each other, there is no single list that can be defined as a healthy eating program. Although the general rules are clear, the healthy nutrition list should be prepared by a dietitian for the person.
WHY IS HEALTHY NUTRITION IMPORTANT?
Protein, carbohydrate, fat, vitamin, mineral and dietary fiber should be taken into the body in sufficient quantities together with the nutrients in order to maintain the body functions in a healthy way.
For this, each food type should be consumed in sufficient quantities and in moderation, and diversity in the diet should be provided.
Anyone who wants to act correctly on healthy nutrition should be careful about these issues first;
The content and proportions of the nutrients taken should be physiological.
Attention should be paid to the amount of energy taken
Meals should be taken frequently and sparingly.
Pay attention to protein and carbohydrate ratios.
Should pay attention to fat limitation
Increase consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables
Balanced grain products should be consumed as an energy source.
Sugar and sweets consumption should be reduced
Pay attention to water and liquid food intake
Food should be stored and cooked properly.
Regular exercise should be done
If these items are to be examined;
Content and proportions of the nutrients taken: While feeding, it is necessary to follow the physiological food pyramid as much as possible.
Since glucose is the main energy source of vital organs and muscles such as the heart and brain, 50-60% of the nutrient content should be taken from carbohydrates in normal healthy nutrition, in diabetic condition, and in other metabolic disorders.
The main sources of carbohydrates; legumes, grains, fruits, vegetables and sugary foods.
Up to 15% of our daily calorie requirement should be obtained from proteins. Protein is the cornerstone of many structures in the human body. It must be consumed in a certain amount for a healthy musculoskeletal structure and hormonal status.
Meat, fish, chicken, eggs and legumes are the main sources of protein. Up to 15% of daily calories should be obtained from fats, but this should contain as little saturated fat as possible.
Animal foods already contain some fat, in addition, 1-2 teaspoons of olive oil consumption may be recommended. Liquid oils are important in vitamin E and the Omega 3 and 6 oils they contain.
Calorie intake: Every extra calorie taken turns into fat and is stored in the body and causes many metabolic diseases. The calories to be taken should be calculated according to the body mass index and daily activity.
Those days: Meals should be taken with the appropriate content frequently and little by little. Instead of 3 main meals, it should be fed 6 times as small meals, and the foods should be chewed and eaten slowly.
Protein and carbohydrates: A balanced intake of carbohydrates and protein should be taken at each meal. Fats: Especially solid saturated fat ratios should be reduced below 7%.
Since there is already some fat in animal foods, extra fat should not be added to these foods.
Power supply: Attention should be paid to the consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables in calorie intake to be used as energy. Thus, vitamin and fiber intake is also provided.
Cereal products should also be included in a certain amount of meals. They are important in terms of both regulating blood sugar and creating a feeling of satiety. Especially whole grains and less refined grains should be consumed.
Sugar and sweet consumption: Simple sugar and sugary products should be reduced as much as possible in daily calories. Simple sugars both increase blood sugar rapidly and cause obesity due to excess calories.
Water and liquid foods: Daily water and fluid consumption is important both for regular digestion and for the proper occurrence of physiological events. Many biochemical reactions in the human body take place with water.
Food storage and cooking methods: It is necessary to pay attention to the storage and cooking techniques in order to preserve the freshness and flavor of the nutrients.
In addition, the vitamin and protein values of foods that are not cooked properly decrease.
Exercise:Regular exercise is very important for the human body to stay healthy and for ideal weight. Isotonic exercises such as walking, swimming and cycling are important in terms of both energy expenditure and resistance of the body.
It should not be forgotten that; It is always beneficial to get support from a doctor and dietitian in terms of both exercise programs and proper nutrition in terms of making a suitable program.
WHAT ARE THE PROBLEMS THAT CAN BE SEEN DUE TO UNHEALTHY NUTRITION?
Many of the chronic diseases that are frequently seen in the world are in a direct relationship with nutrition. In addition, there is an increase in the risk of the emergence of many acute diseases, especially unhealthy and unbalanced nutrition and infectious diseases.
Obesity is the most common health problem related to nutrition in our country and in the world. Obesity, which is an advanced dimension of overweight; It is one of the most important risk factors for many diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, hormonal diseases and metabolic syndrome.
Malnutrition that occurs in unhealthy, unbalanced or malnutrition is called malnutrition in the medical language. Some of the common health problems associated with malnutrition include:
Vitamin and mineral deficiencies
Growth and developmental retardation
Forgetfulness, difficulty concentrating, and confusion
Fatigue and weakness
Disturbances in organ functions
Bone and joint diseases
Muscle wasting (sarcopenia) and decreased muscle strength
If unhealthy, unbalanced, inadequate or excessive nutrition continues for a long time, health problems that can become much more serious and progress to death may occur.
HOW IS A HEALTHY NUTRITION PROGRAM CREATED?
Making use of food clover while creating a healthy nutrition program may be beneficial in terms of simplifying the issue. Food clover with 4 leaves refers to 4 food groups. These groups consist of milk and dairy products, meat, eggs, fish and legumes, fruits and vegetables, and cereals.
Healthy individuals daily at least 2 servings of milk and dairy products; Pregnancy, lactation period or post-menopausal women should consume 3-4 servings.
Again, healthy individuals should consume 2-3 portions of meat or fish per day. While egg consumption can be 1 per day in children or healthy adults, it should be 1-2 times a week in cardiovascular patients. Legumes, which are other foods in this group, should be consumed 2-3 times a week, and attention should be paid to fish consumption at least 2 days a week.
Nutrients such as walnuts, hazelnuts and almonds, which contain valuable proteins and healthy fats, can be consumed as 1-2 servings per day in healthy individuals. Foods such as bread, pasta and wheat, bulgur, rice, which are in the grains group, should be consumed 6 portions a day for individuals with a sedentary lifestyle, and 7-8 portions for those who work hard or have an active lifestyle.
These should be chosen from whole grains rather than refined sugar or purified grains. From the last group of fruits and vegetables, at least 5 servings should be consumed daily.
The average daily energy requirement for humans is 2000 calories. Although this is an average figure, the daily energy requirement is higher in men, young people and those with a high level of physical activity, while this requirement is lower in women, the elderly and individuals with a sedentary lifestyle.
All this information is valid for healthy individuals, and people with any disease or those who regularly use drugs should make changes in their nutrition program. For this reason, in individuals who want to start a healthy diet, first of all, routine health checks should be done, and then they should be repeated regularly.
If you want to get support from a specialist for healthy nutrition or to create a healthy nutrition program suitable for your current diseases, you can apply to health institutions, and after your health checks are completed, you can lead a healthier life by determining your nutrition routine under the leadership of your doctor and dietitian.