What is diarrhea?
Diarrheaare bowel movements in which loose, watery stools are removed, usually more often than normal during the day. Diyare It is another name for diarrhea. Diarrhea is short-lived. It usually lasts for a few days and disappears without the need for any treatment. Diarrhea can be acute, temporary or chronic, long term or permanent.
Acute diarrhea: It occurs when this condition continues for one to two days. It can be caused as a result of a viral or bacterial infection, or from food poisoning. Bacteria and parasites encountered in developing or third world countries during visits and holidays in these countries can cause another type of acute diarrhea called tourist diarrhea.
Chronic diarrhea: It refers to diarrhea that continues for at least four weeks. Often there is a medical cause, such as a bowel disease or disorder. Examples of these are celiac disease, Crohn’s disease, irritable bowel syndrome, persistent infection, or inflammatory bowel disease.
Watery defecation more than three times a day is considered diarrhea. In cases of very severe diarrhea, 13-14 liters of fluid per day can be lost.
Watery or slurred stool, urgent and constant need to go to the toilet, inability to hold a large toilet, thirst, vomiting, nausea, fatigue and gas in the abdominal area are also considered to be the biggest symptoms of diarrhea.
Diarrhea, which can occur due to many different reasons, mostly develops due to environmental factors. There are levels of diarrhea, in case of mild diarrhea, good things can be tried to control the situation.
Summer diarrhea, which is common during the summer period, mostly affects children in the 0-5 age group. More than 6-7 watery stools in babies who are breastfed and more than 3 in children who do not receive breast milk are considered as diarrhea. In the case of frequent toileting, if the stool is not watery, this picture is usually not diarrhea.
WHAT ARE THE SYMPTOMS OF DIRECTION?
Diarrhea symptoms are listed according to the severity of the ailment. If the person has lost a small amount of fluid, symptoms such as thirst may be observed, and in a moderate fluid loss, symptoms such as dry mouth, restless mood and decrease in the amount of urine may be seen. Symptoms become more severe if 10% of the body is dehydrated. Accordingly, the most common symptoms of diarrhea are as follows;
– Urgent defecation and incontinence of the large toilet,
Nausea and vomiting
Abdominal pain and gas
Bacterial infections that occur in the summer months are generally; It occurs with complaints of fever, vomiting, nausea and abdominal pain. Body fever can sometimes rise above 39 degrees. During this period, the most dangerous situation for children is diarrhea and vomiting. Vomiting together with diarrhea causes serious fluid loss in the body. For this reason, it is very important for families to pay attention to the severity of diarrhea and vomiting in their children.
When diarrhea is accompanied by vomiting, the required amount of fluid in the body cannot be balanced, as the child cannot be fed and hydrated enough. If precautions are not taken, serious conditions that can lead to acute renal failure occur with the loss of excessive amount of fluid from the body. For this reason, children should be given plenty of water and drinks such as ayran and fruit juice to ensure that the lost fluid is taken back.
Diarrhea bugs can be easily transmitted from person to person, especially from one child to another. Often, it can spread quickly among young children who haven’t fully learned toilet cleaning. Children and adults should wash their hands properly immediately after using the toilet.
Why does diarrhea occur?
With the increasing air temperatures, bacterial infectious agents can also grow easily and quickly in food. Depending on the storage conditions of the food, there is an increase in the microbes and the toxins they produce. Children who consume foods containing this infection often experience diarrhea, known as gastroenteritis. For this, foods that have waited outside for a long time should not be consumed.
Diarrhea may occur due to a temporary condition such as a bacterial infection or an ongoing illness such as a bowel disease. The most common causes of diarrhea are:
– Microbial diseases of the intestine caused by water and food
Intolerance to foods such as milk and dairy products
-Use of the currant
Drug-related side effects
Diseases that disrupt the intestinal structure such as inflammatory bowel disease
Disorders that disrupt the function of the intestine, such as irritable bowel disease
There are many different microbes that cause diarrhea. Viruses such as rotavirus, Norwalk, Astro virus cannot be treated with antibiotics. Diarrhea caused by bacteria such as Campylobacter, Salmonella, Shigella and Escherichia coli can be treated with antibiotics; but usually by the time the bacteria are identified, the person is already starting to recover.
WHAT IS GOOD FOR DIRECTION?
In patients with diarrhea in which the general condition is good and there is no nausea and vomiting, 1 tablespoon of sugar, 1 teaspoon of table salt and 1 teaspoon of baking soda is mixed in 1 liter of boiled chilled water and the prepared mixture is drunk at frequent intervals. In more severe cases, if the person cannot be fed orally, if there is fever and prolonged diarrhea (more than 24 hours), fluid and electrolyte supplements should be made in hospital conditions, and diarrhea treatment planning should be done by performing stool examination.
Proper nutrition is very important during diarrhea. During this period, I should not consume fatty and fibrous foods. As an answer to the question of what is good for diarrhea, it can be said that potatoes and bananas are the most important foods in terms of preventing potassium loss. Foods that are good for diarrhea include soup, boiled, puree, pasta and rice. Their consumption is beneficial for reducing diarrhea. The most important part of diarrhea treatment is to prevent fluid and electrolyte loss.
The most important points in the treatment of diarrhea are to ensure that the body regains the fluid and salts lost due to diarrhea, if possible, to continue feeding and to consult a doctor immediately. The vast majority of diarrhea cases seen in children are mild to moderate diarrhea cases and can be treated mostly in home conditions. The first measures to be taken are as follows:
In mild diarrhea;
In cases of persistent vomiting and mild diarrhea without fever, drinking plenty of water is good for diarrhea. If a baby has diarrhea, attention should be paid to breast milk intake. Thirst symptoms should be monitored in a controlled manner.
In moderate diarrhea;
In moderate diarrhea cases, restlessness and thirst start to manifest themselves more. If the child is older than 6 months, diarrhea kits that can be purchased from the pharmacy can be used.
In advanced diarrhea;
In case of persistent and chronic diarrhea, a doctor should be consulted and necessary tests should be done.
After the doctor’s examination, some tests may be requested for the diagnosis of diarrhea. These;
– Searching for infectious agents such as bacteria and parasites with fecal culture,
Blood tests to rule out some diseases
Hunger test to reveal food intolerance,
Endoscopic examinations such as sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy to examine part of your intestines directly.
ARE ANTIBIOTIC USED IN THE TREATMENT OF DIARY?
The vast majority of childhood diarrhea can be caused by viruses and can resolve spontaneously within 3-6 days. Antibiotics are not needed in most cases of diarrhea, as antibiotics do not kill viruses. However, antibiotics may be required in cases of diarrhea with blood and mucus in defecation (bloody diarrhea), high fever and severe abdominal pain.
Appropriate treatment is started in bacterial and protozoal diarrhea that require antimicrobial treatment. If there is a complaint of abdominal pain and diarrhea, antibiotics should not be used without consulting a doctor. Generally, children with diarrhea do not need any diarrhea medication. These drugs do not contribute to stopping diarrhea and sometimes cause serious harm.
Home treatment for diarrhea
In diarrhea, first home treatment can be applied with liquids containing sugar and salt. Among the things that are good for diarrhea is the “sugar-salt package for diarrhea” found in pharmacies and health centers. One of these packages should be added to 1 liter of clean water and mixed. This application is important to replace fluids lost as a result of diarrhea. In general, children with diarrhea without dehydration can be given 10 ml / kg of this fluid per stool (ie a child weighing 10 kg should be given 100 ml of fluid after each diarrhea). If there is a slight loss of fluid, 50 ml / kg of fluid is given in 4 hours. When preparing liquid for diarrhea treatment at home, care should be taken to use ready-made packages.
The liquids prepared in this way may not be liked by children, but they should be drunk. Children who vomit frequently can be given 1 teaspoon (5 ml) of liquid every 1-2 minutes. Children whose fluid and salt needs are met, vomiting usually improves after a while. However, it is more appropriate to make the treatment plan in a health center for children with sunken eyes, dry mouth and moderate fluid loss.
During the treatment of diarrhea, its nutrition should be continued. Babies should continue to breast milk or formula. Foods that are good for adults’ diarrhea include rice, potatoes, bread, lean meat and yogurt. Fatty foods, tea, fruit juice and acidic beverages should be avoided.
How to prevent diarrhea?
Hands must be washed with soap to prevent viral diarrhea caused by viruses. It should be hand washed frequently to remain clean sufficiently and correctly. Hands should be washed before and after preparing food. Hands should be washed after touching uncooked meat, using the toilet, changing diapers, sneezing, coughing and wiping the nose.
Hands should be washed with soap for at least 20 seconds. During these 20 seconds, hands should continue to be rubbed with soap. If hand washing is not possible, alcohol-based hand cleaners and disinfectants containing at least 60 percent alcohol should be used. Hand sanitizer should be applied like a hand lotion, and it should be applied to the front and back parts of both hands.
It is possible to be protected with vaccines developed against rotavirus, which is the most common cause of viral diarrhea in children.
To prevent passenger diarrhea, which often affects people traveling to countries where environmental health measures and nutrient cleanliness are inadequate, individuals should be mindful of what they eat.
Well cooked and hot foods should be preferred. Raw fruits and vegetables that the individual has not peeled should be avoided. Raw or undercooked meat and dairy products should be avoided. Bottled water, mineral water, fruit juice and fermented drinks served in their original container should be preferred.
Avoid using tap water and ice in drinks. Bottled water should be used to brush teeth. The mouth should be kept closed while taking a shower. Drinks like coffee or tea made with boiling water will likely be safe. However, as well as aggravating diarrhea, caffeine and alcohol have the risk of further dehydration.