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What is anaphylaxis and what are its symptoms? (How is anaphylaxis treated?) – Health News


British actress Stephanie Davis, who shines with her Hollyoaks TV series, announced that she has caught the corona virus. 28 year old player anafilaksi It turned out that there was no vaccine.

So, what is anaphylaxis, what are the symptoms and causes of anaphylaxis?

WHAT IS ANAphylaxis?

Anaphylaxis is a serious, potentially life-threatening allergic reaction that needs to be treated immediately. This reaction can occur within seconds or minutes after an allergic individual is exposed to an allergic object, such as a peanut or bee sting.

Anaphylaxis happens because the immune system releases chemicals that can cause the individual to enter. The blood pressure of the individual drops suddenly and the airways narrow, which prevents both breathing and meeting the body’s oxygen needs.

WHAT ARE THE CAUSES OF ANAphylaxis?

Under normal conditions, the immune system produces antibodies that defend the body against foreign substances. This is necessary and good when there are harmful bacteria or viruses in the body. However, some individuals’ immune systems overreact to substances that do not normally cause an allergic reaction.

Allergy symptoms are usually not life-threatening, but a severe allergic reaction can lead to anaphylaxis.

The most common triggers of anaphylaxis in children are food allergies, usually from foods such as peanuts and walnuts, fish, shellfish, and milk.

Common triggers for anaphylaxis in adults include the same foods, as well as antibiotics, aspirin, other over-the-counter pain relievers, and certain medications containing intravenous contrast agent used in some imaging tests, insect stings such as wasps, honey bees, or fire ants, various spiders. poisoning and especially latex.

Although very rare, some individuals develop anaphylaxis from aerobic exercise, less intense physical activity such as walking, or running.

Eating certain foods before exercise or exercising when the weather is hot, cold or humid are linked to this. It is necessary to consult a doctor beforehand about the precautions to be taken while exercising.

If it is unknown what triggers the allergic reaction, some tests can help identify the allergen, but in some cases the cause of anaphylaxis cannot be identified. This condition is called idiopathic anaphylaxis.

There are few factors that increase the risk of anaphylaxis. These include the history of anaphylaxis. Even if an individual has had a mild anaphylactic reaction in the past, there is a risk of a more severe anaphylactic reaction after repeated exposure to the allergy-causing substance.

Asthma or existing allergies put individuals at risk for anaphylaxis. In addition to these, various heart diseases and mastocytosis, which is an abnormal accumulation of a type of white blood cell called mast, also increase the risk of anaphylaxis.

HOW DOES AN ANAphylactic reaction develop, what are the symptoms?

Allergic reactions occur due to the body’s response to a substance. For example, spring allergies are triggered by plant factors such as pollen or grass that occur during seasonal transitions. Anaphylaxis, which occurs within minutes more quickly than this and similar types of allergies, can progress to life-threatening dimensions in a short time if not properly intervened.

The allergens that can trigger this reaction can come into contact with the body through inhalation (during breathing), through the digestive tract by swallowing, on the skin by touch, or directly through injections. After contact, the body begins to respond within seconds or minutes at the latest. In moderate allergies, no obvious symptoms may occur for several hours.

The anaphylactic response usually tends to begin shortly after exposure. During this period, the body begins to fight against this substance, which it responds to, by releasing many chemicals into the bloodstream. Circulating chemicals trigger a series of chain reactions, and thus the symptoms of anaphylaxis begin to appear. Many symptoms are among the early symptoms of anaphylaxis:

Feeling of tightness or discomfort in the chest area

Shortness of breath

Cough

nausea and vomiting

Diarrhea

abdominal pain

difficulty swallowing

Itching

tongue twitching while speaking

Dizziness

These initial symptoms may worsen with the progression of anaphylaxis.

Serious symptoms, especially in people for whom appropriate treatment is not started, can be summarized as follows:

low blood pressure (blood pressure)

Weakness

Loss of consciousness

irregular heart rhythm

acceleration in heart rate

Wheezing during breathing

Obstruction in the airways

Itchy lesions on the skin

Intense edema formation that can manifest itself in any part of the body, especially in the face and eye area

Shock

Cardiac arrest

Respiratory arrest (loss of function of the respiratory system)

Early recognition of anaphylaxis and appropriate intervention are very important issues so that patients do not experience these frightening symptoms.

HOW IS ANAphylaxis DIAGNOSED?

The diagnosis of anaphylaxis is made on the basis of clinical signs, therefore no laboratory studies or other examinations are required. Deaths in cases of anaphylactic shock usually occur within the first hour of exposure to the allergen, so early recognition and action is vital.

During the evaluation of people who come to the emergency services with the suspicion of anaphylaxis, physicians can investigate the presence of any wheezing sound due to fluid collection by listening to the lungs of the patients with physical examination methods. At the same time, the medical history of the person is evaluated and it is questioned whether the patient has had any previous allergic reaction to allergens that may trigger the symptoms.

After the appropriate diagnosis and intervention, the diagnosis can be confirmed by means of various examinations. The blood level of the enzyme tryptase rises within approximately 3 hours after anaphylaxis. Therefore, biochemical examination of this enzyme level may be useful in confirming the diagnosis of anaphylaxis. In the next period, examining which allergens patients are sensitive to by means of various skin and blood tests also contributes to support the diagnosis of anaphylaxis.

HOW IS ANAPHILAXIA TREATED?

Allergic reactions are considered a medical emergency as they can quickly develop into a state of anaphylaxis or anaphylactic shock. In these cases, at the first stage of treatment planning, the patient’s airway is secured and fluid support can be given. After the completion of this stage, the factors that may initiate this condition of the patient are quickly evaluated and it is ensured that the exposure does not continue.

The main treatment for anaphylaxis is epinephrine injection. The intramuscular (intramuscular) administration dose of epinephrine with a concentration of 1 in 1000 for the treatment of anaphylaxis is between 0.3-0.5 ml. In cases of young age, the appropriate dose is calculated according to the child’s weight. Intramuscular administration of epinephrine is a preferred method as it gives faster results than intravenous or subcutaneous injections. Patients usually show improvement after a single injection, but in some patients it may be necessary for physicians to repeat epinephrine injections at 5-10 minute intervals.

Because of its life-threatening symptoms, anaphylaxis should be recognized in the early period and appropriate intervention should be made. When you think you are experiencing an allergic reaction or that someone else may be, it is important to stay calm and focus on what can be done. It is recommended that you apply to a health institution as soon as possible and get help from experts about the allergen and symptoms you suspect.

In addition to severe reactions such as anaphylaxis, if you feel symptoms that may cause you to suspect allergic conditions, it is recommended that you seek support from allergy and immunology specialists in order to reveal and control this situation.

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